The Indonesian government has undergone a number of changes since its inception in 1945. The first president, Sukarno, held office from 1945 to 1967 and was followed by Suharto, who was in power from 1967 to 1998. In 1999, Suharto was forced to resign in the wake of widespread protests and riots. This article will provide a brief overview of the Indonesian government during the Suharto era, from 1967 to 1998.
The Suharto regime was a military dictatorship, and the government was effectively controlled by the president and his clique of military officers. Suharto maintained tight control over the media and the political process, and any opposition was ruthlessly suppressed. The economy was centrally planned and strictly regulated, with the government playing a dominant role in all sectors. Inflation was rampant and the standard of living was low.
Despite the repressive nature of the regime, the Suharto government was successful in bringing about significant economic growth and development. This was in part due to the country’s natural resources and the fact that it was largely shielded from the global financial crisis of the late 1990s. However, the benefits of economic growth were not shared equally, and a small number of wealthy elites became increasingly wealthy while the majority of the population remained poor.
In 1998, a series of financial scandals led to widespread protests and riots. Suharto was forced to resign and was eventually replaced by B.J. Habibie. Habibie’s presidency was short-lived, and in 1999 he was replaced by Abdurrahman Wahid. Wahid was eventually impeached and replaced by Megawati Sukarnoputri.
Since the fall of the Suharto regime, there has been a gradual transition to democracy in Indonesia. A number of political parties have been formed, and there have been several rounds of national elections. However, political instability has continued to be a problem, and the country has experienced a number of military coups and presidential impeachments.
- 1 What was happening in Indonesia in 1999?
- 2 Who was the dictator of Indonesia from 1967 1998?
- 3 What form of government did Indonesia have after independence?
- 4 When did Indonesia transition to democracy?
- 5 Why did Indonesia leave the UN?
- 6 When did the East Timor genocide end?
- 7 Who led the Indonesian genocide?
What was happening in Indonesia in 1999?
In 1999, Indonesia was a country in the midst of political and social turmoil. In May of that year, the country’s president, Suharto, resigned after 32 years in power, following widespread protests against his government.
The years leading up to Suharto’s resignation were marked by increasing unrest among the Indonesian people. In 1998, inflation reached an all-time high, and the country was struggling under the weight of a crushing foreign debt. In addition, the Suharto government had been widely criticized for its human rights abuses, corruption, and cronyism.
In January of 1999, Suharto’s ruling party, Golkar, suffered a major defeat in parliamentary elections. This was seen as a sign of public dissatisfaction with the president and his regime. In May of that year, Suharto resigned, and was succeeded by his deputy, B.J. Habibie.
Under Habibie, Indonesia began a process of political and social reform. In 1999, a new constitution was adopted, and direct presidential elections were held for the first time. In 2000, Megawati Sukarnoputri, the daughter of Indonesia’s first president, was elected president.
Under Megawati, Indonesia made further progress in its transition to democracy. In 2004, the country held its first fully democratic parliamentary elections. In 2005, Indonesia held its first ever direct presidential election, and Megawati was defeated by Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.
Since Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s election, Indonesia has continued to make progress in its transition to democracy. In 2009, the country held its first ever local elections, and in 2011, it held its first ever elections for regional heads. In 2014, Indonesia held its first ever presidential election in which more than one candidate was allowed to run, and Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono was defeated by Joko Widodo.
Today, Indonesia is a democracy with a democratically-elected president. The country is also experiencing a period of economic growth, and has made progress in tackling some of the social and economic challenges it faces.
Who was the dictator of Indonesia from 1967 1998?
Who was the dictator of Indonesia from 1967 1998?
General Suharto was the dictator of Indonesia from 1967 until 1998. Suharto came to power in a military coup in 1967 and ruled Indonesia with an iron fist for more than 30 years. He was a brutal dictator who repressed freedom of speech and assembly, and oversaw widespread human rights abuses. Under Suharto’s rule, Indonesia became one of the poorest countries in the world. In May 1998, Suharto was forced to resign following mass protests against his regime.
What form of government did Indonesia have after independence?
Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. The president is the head of state and the head of government. The president is elected by direct vote for a five-year term. The president appoints a cabinet, subject to legislative approval. There is a bicameral legislature, consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate. The House of Representatives has 550 members, elected by direct vote to a five-year term. The Senate has 112 members, elected by regional legislatures to six-year terms. There is a Constitutional Court that has the power to annul legislation that is inconsistent with the Constitution.
When did Indonesia transition to democracy?
When did Indonesia transition to democracy?
The answer to this question is not as straightforward as one might think. The first free and fair elections in Indonesia were held in 1999, but the country had been on a path towards democracy for many years before that.
In 1965, General Suharto seized power in a military coup and declared himself president. He ruled Indonesia with an iron fist for more than three decades, during which time he tightly controlled the media and suppressed any form of dissent.
However, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, there was a growing movement towards democracy in Indonesia. This was in part due to the fall of communism in Europe, and the increasing number of Indonesians who were travelling and studying abroad.
In 1998, Suharto was finally forced to resign following a series of protests and riots. This opened the door for free and fair elections, which were held in 1999.
Since then, Indonesia has been a democratically-elected government. However, there have been several military coups and regime changes, and the country has experienced significant political and social upheaval in the past two decades.
Why did Indonesia leave the UN?
On January 20, 1965, Indonesia announced its decision to leave the United Nations (UN). The move was made in protest against the UN’s failure to recognize Indonesia’s annexation of West Papua.
Indonesia had joined the UN in 1950, and was one of its founding members. However, the UN’s refusal to recognize Indonesia’s annexation of West Papua – a former Dutch colony that had been under Indonesian control since 1963 – led Jakarta to withdraw from the organization.
Indonesia has never rejoined the UN. It has, however, remained a member of other international organizations, such as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Non-Aligned Movement.
When did the East Timor genocide end?
The East Timor genocide ended in 1999, after the Indonesian military withdrew from East Timor. However, the violence and human rights abuses did not end with the withdrawal of the military. There was a significant increase in violence after the UN-administered transition period, and many civilians were killed, injured, or raped.
Who led the Indonesian genocide?
The Indonesian genocide was a horrific event that took place in the country of Indonesia in the mid-1960s. The genocide was led by the Indonesian government and military, and resulted in the deaths of up to a million people. The genocide was carried out in order to suppress political opposition and ethnic groups in the country.
The Indonesian genocide was initiated by General Suharto, who came to power in a military coup in 1965. Suharto quickly began to purge the government and military of any opposition, and began to target ethnic groups who he saw as a threat to his rule. In particular, Suharto targeted the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI), which had a large following in the country. The PKI was accused of being involved in a coup attempt against Suharto, and as a result, was ruthlessly suppressed.
The Indonesian genocide was carried out with the support of the Indonesian military and government. The military was used to carry out mass killings of civilians, and the government provided logistical support and funding for the genocide. The genocide was also supported by the United States, which provided financial and military support to Suharto.
The Indonesian genocide resulted in the death of up to a million people. Most of the deaths were caused by the Indonesian military, who carried out mass killings of civilians. The genocide also resulted in the displacement of millions of people, who were forced to flee their homes.
The Indonesian genocide is considered to be one of the most brutal genocides in history. It was carried out with the support of the government and military, and resulted in the death of up to a million people.